Strange days

State leaders say Nevada needs to diversify from reliance on gambling, and they are aiming at making the state an energy Mecca with facilities like the Ormat geothermal plant. But the state may have waited too long to get serious.

Few living Nevadans remember a time when the state was not
growing in population. But now they may all be experiencing it.

State Demographer Jeff Hardcastle on Dec. 30 reported his latest
population estimates, which indicate the state has begun to lose
population.

In what may be an indication of how ingrained is the notion of
Nevada as ever-growing, his news release was emailed with the incorrect
subhead of “Nevada is still growing, but at a reduced
rate.” A correction was sent out later in the day.

Hardcastle’s statement said his figures showed that,
“Overall, Nevada lost an estimated 27,677 persons or 1 percent
since July 2008. That compares with a 20,396 or 0.8 percent gain from
July 2007 to July 2008 and a 95,287 or 3.6 increase percent from July
2006 to July 2007.”

A few days earlier, U.S. Census Bureau estimates showed Nevada still
growing. But their figures were scarcely more encouraging, showing only
a 1 percent increase in population, dependent entirely on residential
births outpacing deaths. In terms of migration, the Bureau showed more
people leaving the state than moving in.

Is this necessarily bad news, or are there benefits that can be
gained from declining population?

Two former governors say it is bad news, while offering a
caveat.

“I don’t think there are benefits that can be gained,
but I do think that the rate of growth we experienced before was
not particularly helpful,” said former governor and U.S. senator
Richard Bryan, who became governor at the tail end of a crippling
recession and set up a program to diversify the state’s
economy.

“This lull may give us some breathing room after that
extraordinarily high rate of growth we had,” he said. “But
we need to have some moderate growth.”

Former governor Kenny Guinn agrees, sometimes in the same kind of
language.

“I think we need growth, though the kind of growth we have had
recently has been difficult to cope with,” he said.

Bob Fulkerson, director of the Progressive Leadership Alliance of
Nevada, disagrees. He said government should focus not on encouraging
growth but on serving a stable population with sustainable use of the
available resources, particularly water. Indeed, he said, the lack of
prosperity now was produced in part by assuming that growth was the key
to prosperity, an assumption that does not work when premises like
cheap gasoline and a monopoly on gambling change.

“First, workers and their families have endured extreme
hardship as a result of the downturn,” he said. “That
downturn was the inevitable result of terrible public policy on the
state and local level that depended on seemingly endless growth;
cheaply built but expensively sold houses in ugly suburbs sprawling
into the desert, where you had construction workers building homes for
construction workers; and cheap oil to bring us the tourists to sustain
our only real industry, especially in Southern Nevada.”

One of the benefits of this decline in population growth, Fulkerson
said, is a chance to approach progress in a different way, not by a
dependence on growth but on creating a positive quality of life for
those already living in Nevada.

“Ed Abbey said ‘growth for its own sake is the pathology
of a cancer cell.’ Now that the cancerous growth of urban sprawl
has been slowed, we should talk alternatives to the current way of
making money that depends largely on desecrating our wild and open
spaces with housing tracts. Why do we insist on the growth-is-good
paradigm? Who chiseled that into stone? … We can retool our
thinking, and then our communities, to be based on sustainable and
renewable business practices.”

Nevada Taxpayers Association director Carole Vilardo said one
benefit of the population decline is that there is less demand for
public services. But she also noted that the population decline happens
to be taking place during a recession, when that demand rises, so the
state lost whatever benefit it might have gained. She said the
state’s school system may benefit from being able to catch up
with school construction.

She said the state’s economy and tax system are not
particularly well structured if the population loss becomes an extended
problem and the recession continues. (A recent Moody’s study of a
dozen states showed Nevada the only one not showing signs of
recovery.)

“In a downturn, you don’t usually see all segments of
the economy fall at the same rate, so a diversified economy gives you
some protection from recession,” Vilardo said. The state has been
trying to diversify the economy with limited success since Bryan was
governor.

Bryan agreed with Vilardo and, when asked if the drop in population
would force changes in the tax structure and other policies, he said,
“I hope so. I hope so. That would be a benefit.”

Many authorities on the state’s economy see the downturn in
population as recession-related. Bryan is one of them. But some have
been saying otherwise, that the rise of tribal gambling and other
factors, such as the rise in gas prices, made changes in Nevada’s
fundamental ways of doing business almost certain, and when the state
failed to make adaptations, population loss resulted.

One of those is former state archives administrator Guy Louis Rocha,
who said the state’s problems are more deep seated than most
community and commercial leaders have been willing to admit, and that
they have been less than daring in dealing with it.

Vilardo said the state is taking a look at some ways to build a new
economy. Nevada has for many years been overwhelmingly dependent on
tourism and construction.

“It’s almost impossible to ship things across country
without crossing Nevada,” she said. She noted that a state
legislative committee is conducting a study to try to find ways related
to warehousing and other commercial factors through which the state
could take advantage of that location. Democratic candidate for
governor Rory Reid wants to beef up Nevada’s warehousing laws:
“Nevada could become one of the leading trans-shipment centers of
North America with smart planning and implementation.”

But Rocha says the state is already well down that road. In 1949, he
said, the legislature provided “for a freeport tax exemption,
whereby all inventories held for resale within or outside the borders
of the state were tax-exempt, spark[ing] a warehousing boom.”

Vilardo further points out that efforts are underway to link up
power grids around Nevada that will help foster energy research and
development in the state.

The Nevada Legislature last year took some halting steps to
encourage an energy industry, but critics have called those steps
half-hearted and say they lag behind other sun drenched Western states.
Some say the current two-year period is critical and the fact that the
Nevada Legislature did not take bolder steps puts the state far behind.
Lawmakers say they could not do more—particularly in enhancing
the kind of educational facilities energy research needs—because
Gov. Jim Gibbons’ veto would have stopped the expenditures needed
and the taxes required. “It was penny wise,” said one
legislator. “Gibbons keeps thinking there’s a free
lunch.”

Rocha said other Western states have leaped ahead of Nevada in laws
encouraging investment and the substantial research facilities to
attract it. “If I wanted to put a company somewhere, I’d
look at the Wasatch Front,” he said, referring to the chain of
urban areas—Salt Lake City, Provo, Ogden and others—in the
Wasatch Range in Utah that contain 80 percent of that state’s
population and a half dozen universities, including Brigham Young
University and the University of Utah.

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About Dennis Myers 1397 Articles
Dennis Myers was the news editor of the Reno News & Review. He was a journalist for more than four decades. In 1987-88 he was chief deputy secretary of state of Nevada. He was coauthor of Uniquely Nevada, a children’s history textbook, and a contributor to the books The Mythical West and Covering the Courts in Nevada. In September, 2020, he was inducted into the Nevada Newspaper Hall of Fame.